Category Archives: Reference Education

Should Science be Taught in Primary Schools?

Recently, a survey of 1.026 secondary school students was conducted by the national Space Science Centre in Leicester. Four out of five thought science at school was boring, 15% thought biology the only subject of any interest, and 90% criticized the way they had been taught science. Only one student in 14 wanted to take up a career in science.

Science is a compulsory subject for all children up to key stage 4. According to the National Curriculum, teaching science ensures that scientific enquiry is taught through contexts taken from sections on life processes and living things, materials and their properties and physical processes.

Through science pupils’ should be taught to plan, obtain and present evidence, follow simple instructions, explore using a variety of senses and how to communicate in a variety of ways including ICT.

There are conflicting views in to whether or not science should be taught in primary schools. After much research I have taken certain views and included them in this assignment.

To begin, Science stimulates and excites children’s curiosity about phenomena and events that happen around them in the world they live. This is because through Science children are given the opportunity to find out information, test ideas, seek explanations, and are therefore able to develop ways of understanding the world around them and understand new experiences. Children also learn to appreciate the world they live in. It helps them to understand how major scientific breakthroughs contribute to their better living such as important cures in medicine, inventions in engineering and new developments in technology.

For most children, science is dynamic, exciting and fun as it is practical and gives the children a chance to learn and find out things for themselves rather then being told. This develops some important life skills such as self-motivation, time keeping, planning, and communication both verbal and written. It also makes the child question, and discusses issues that may affect their own lives such as why do objects fall? And the future, such as will oxygen ever run out?

There are many different strategies which can be used when teaching primary science such as; investigations and other practical activities conducted by the pupils’, demonstrations by the teacher, and teacher exposition and explanation. Regardless of how children learn the knowledge it is clear that understanding the key concepts of science will allow pupils to use them in unfamiliar situations and using scientific methods of investigation will help pupil’s to think scientifically and make successful, disciplined enquiries and use ideas to solve relevant problems.

There is also evidence that attitudes to science seem to be formed earlier than to most other subjects and children tend to have taken a definite position with regard to their liking of the subject by the age of eleven or twelve. Such reactions undoubtedly affect their later performance in science. It is therefore the role of the teacher and the science taught in primary school to ensure children like the subject, find it fun and have a keen interest to learn more when they continue science throughout their secondary school.

However, many believe that teaching science to early years is far too young. On Monday the 18th of September 2000 the BBC published an article referring to primary science being ‘too hard’. The research conducted suggested that the science curriculum is pitched too high for primary school children. According to a survey of more than 120 teachers; up to a third of the topics are ‘too difficult’ for five to seven year olds with the study of physical processes causing the most confusion for primary aged children? Many children were finding the vocabulary difficult to understand such as the word force. Many were confusing the word with being ‘forced to do something’ rather then ‘a measurable influence that causes something to move’.

A similar article also published by the BBC in September 2000 was from Dr Pine. Dr Pine believed that children of this age are known to have difficulties with abstract concepts, and strongly questioned whether the content of the national curriculum was appropriate for children so young. Dr Pine’s study also suggests young children are reluctant to give up their own theories about how the way the world works. She believed that by the time a child is six he or she will have formed misguided views that are very difficult for teachers to dislodge.

It seems to not only be pupils’ finding the primary science curriculum difficult but the teachers themselves. Findings from the Office for Standards in Education were that: “Some teachers understanding of particular areas of science, especially the physical science is not sufficiently well developed and this gives rise to unevenness of standards”.

Harlen was also concerned about international findings, which reported pupil difficulties within certain concept areas. She summarized findings from a large number of studies and concludes that pupil difficulty is chiefly due to the insufficient explanations given by primary teachers.

There are also many other reasons to why professionals believe teaching science at primary level is inappropriate. Firstly, health and safety which is very important especially with practical activities. Children of this age are not yet able to take full responsibility for their own health and safety so it is therefore the role of the adults in the classroom. Not only is this very demanding but it can also be quite dangerous as it is impossible to be watching all children at all times.

The need for equipment is also very high whether it is for a teacher demonstration or for the pupil’s to use. Some of this equipment can be very expensive and schools have tight budgets. This may mean that some schools go without or if they do have the equipment it is very often limited as it has to be shared between all classes.

Unfortunately my experiences of primary science are extremely limited. I do not remember doing any practical work and consequently have always found the subject challenging and uninspiring. I am sure there were also times where I was learning science without realizing, such as on school trips, but for most of which I can remember it was a teacher dictating facts followed by dull worksheets for which I and the other children had to complete.

Using the knowledge I have gained through research and experience I can reflect on my memories and assess the teacher’s actions. I believe we were given worksheets and re-called facts as it was far less time consuming and ‘easy’ as there was less preparation needed. The pressure of exams and league tables means teachers are being forced to teach the facts about science and not allowed to use the time to show the excitement in science.

Resources were also very limited. I am not sure if this was due to the choice of the school or lack of finance. There was basic equipment available such as friction blocks/rods, scales and magnets, but no exciting equipment such as Bunsen burners, microscopes and glow balls which could have easily been used to demonstrate ‘exciting concepts’. The lack of resources and equipment also put an emphasis on science being uninteresting and boring.

I have been visiting my current school placement for over six weeks and I have yet to see any science. I find this quite shocking and so I approached the teacher wandering why more science wasn’t being taught. Her answers were worrying, she believed the children were too young (reception) to understand the concepts and would therefore just get bored. She also said that resources were limited and so lots of planning would be needed and she didn’t have the time to plan so far in advance.

In my conclusion I refer back to the question ‘should we teach science in primary schools?’ I have gathered information from various sources and have the benefit of my own experiences and those around me to conclude that I believe science should be taught in
primary schools as it is practical and creative and teaches children to make sense of the world they live in. Science teaches the children important skills, to think scientifically and also gives the children the opportunity to question.

However, I believe science should be fun, exciting and perhaps most importantly the child should be kept interested. Unfortunately this doesn’t always happen and this is probably why many children as they get older think science is boring and they find it difficult.

I believe that the content of the primary curriculum should be changed to enable teachers to give an exciting and comprehensible introduction. Primary teachers should work with children in the observation and description of phenomena such as evaporation and gravity but save any explanation for post primary science when pupils’ are better able and less prone to boredom. In order to do this, teachers themselves need educating so they themselves have the confidence to ‘pass on’ their knowledge. This could be done in a variety of ways such as introducing workshops or courses so teachers can gain ideas in to how science can be taught effectively and made fun. With this new level of expertise the teacher should then be able to plan science lessons for all ages including those children who are in the foundation stage.

The article was produced by Research Papers expert writer. Mar Anne Winslow has a vast experience in Dissertation writing counselling and term paper writing services for several years.

13 Reasons Why Universities Need to Change

1. Universities force you to follow their rules and roads already walked on. This in itself tramples true originality and genius.

2. They get you to study by punishment and not inspiration. They are more fear-oriented than joy-oriented.

3. At the end of 4, or more likely 5 or even 6, years, most people are still as lost as before and can’t find a good job.

4. The textbooks, which students have no choice about, are very expensive and keep changing editions, so when you’re ready to sell them back, you can’t. Or you get peanuts back.

5. The internet has made all knowledge and sources of knowledge accessible. Universities are no longer necessary!!!

6. Professors can’t teach you how to become financially independent. In addition, most professors care more about their research than their students. Real teachers often end up at community colleges by choice for this very reason.

7. Universities brainwash you into thinking your worth depends on your GPA, the name of your school, and years of formal education. In truth, your worth isn’t dependent on any of those things.

8. Universities prepare you to work for someone else, not for yourself.

9. It’s been shown in studies that there is no correlation between happiness and level of formal education.

10. Constant staring at books and computer screens, which universities make necessary, leads to loss of eyesight, headaches, and other physical problems.

11. Universities don’t customize anything for YOU. You are just a number.

12. Universities cost a small fortune. You’d be better of investing the same money on your own business or a customized personal education by choosing your own topics of interest, books, teachers, etc.

13. Some universities/majors are so competitive that students adopt a series of unhealthy habits (caffeine all day, fast food, drugs that keep them studying all night, release through heavy alcohol and parties). Many students develop depression. Some even commit suicide. My own alma mater, UC Berkeley, has seen at least two suicides).

Kisses & Hearts


Certified life coach

General Knowledge Online Test – Improve Your General Knowledge Skills

Now online facility has made you easy to access any kind of data easily. For the students this is the very flexible mode to improve the general knowledge skills. Economically, socially, politically and technically, you should know what the history is and what will be in future. Everyone wants to know their past and should be. Because, for the success this is also must to know. As we face any interview or any exams, first the examiner check the general knowledge skills. So how you can strong your skills we are here at Get Gyan, providing the General Knowledge Online Test by which you can check your skills and also make strong GK skills.

Here you freely can avail for Online Tests. For this here is very simple registration form where you need to fill the name, email and password only. After registered your name here, you easily can access any type of tests. The procedure to access the General Knowledge Online Test is very simple. Just click on online tests. Here you will find the various categories in which General Knowledge Online Tests will be one of them. When you will click here, this will explore the various general knowledge tests like Brands and Companies, Current Affairs, Discovery and Inventions, Earth and Universe, General Science, History and Culture, India, Indian Economy, Indian States and Cities, Personalities, Plant and Animal Kingdom, Politics, Sports, World and Miscellaneous.

With the help of these online tests, you easily can strong skills and will confidence in yourself. For the government exams like banks, IAS, PCS, Telecommunications and many more, general questions always ask and which section also have to cross. So for the candidates, this General Knowledge Online Test is best resource. At any time and from anywhere you easily can fetch these tests. You also can judge yourself as here is grading system. You can make competition with the other candidates as they take these tests. In what time you do this tests also can check.

In case, you have problem in any test or want to give your comment, here is laying a comment box. Here you can write your comment about the tests. So through the, you learn the lots of things which are beneficial to make a bright future. So, without any hesitation you can easily find the General Knowledge Online Test after making the a few clicks of mouse.

Satty Jones has a passion for life span education Get Gyan and believes wholeheartedly that a healthy society begins General Knowledge Online Test, Online Tests help at home. please visit:

Excellent Teachers Never Blame Parents for Students Academic Failure

Studies show that statistically there are more African American students in special education than there are in regular classrooms. The typical child in a special education is a black male child. African Americans make up 13 percent of the U. S. population and almost 50% of prisoners in the U. S. penile system. There is a direct relationship between a person’s life opportunities and level and quality of education.

A classroom is the most important public room in the world because this is where most human beings cognitively develop and learn to adapt to societal expectations. The classroom is where they have the opportunity to transform beyond troubled home lives and poor living conditions. The classroom is the breeding ground that nourishes the seeds of hopes, dreams and ideas that change human society into something greater than we have ever imagined. Teachers are the caretakers of the classroom garden. They nurture it with their integrity, wisdom, dignity, patience, understanding and a sense of justice. Without these characteristics we leave students with empty facts and figures. The proper encouragement and support from a teacher can determine if a child becomes the next president or prostitute; doctor or drug dealer. The teacher’s attitude, expectations and work ethic towards students have a ripple affect on the entire world.

A certified teacher is tested on their academic knowledge if the subject matter. However, several studies show that the most important characteristics of excellent teachers are: enthusiasm, compassion, sense of humor and passion. None of these characteristics can be taught from a text book; they can only be modeled by a teacher who already possesses these characteristics. Many teachers love the subjects that they teach, but in order to be effective they must love the students so much more. They must embrace the students who are not dressed properly, sleep in class and who appear unloved at home. These are the students who need excellent teachers the most.

There is debate between parents and teachers as to who is the blame for student’s poor academic performance and achievement. There is an assumption that parents are the major reason that children fail academically. Even if this statement has truth, it lacks power to change the lives of most children. This assumption contains an unstated belief that all parents love their children and are knowledgeable about child development. Human beings are not required to be certified or licensed to become a parent. Reproduction is a biological function of the human body. Parents are not required to pass a test to determine if they are intelligent, wise, nurturing or compassionate. We have age limits for consuming alcoholic beverages, dropping out of school, joining the military, purchasing firearms, buying cigarettes and watching R-rated movies. There isn’t an age requirement for being responsible for the nurturance and guidance of another life that shares our genetic makeup.

Many people become parents due to various reasons… some as simple as their birth control method failed. Some women were raped. Some children were conceived under the influence of alcohol or drugs. Parents are not required to be educated or know how to read, write, add or subtract. But teachers expect parents to help their children with home work. If a parent has not established a healthy sense of self-love- they can not impart these characteristics own to their children.

On the other hand, becoming a qualified teacher is a conscious decision that requires years of training. Teachers are not only required to know their subject matter, but also understand how humans learn and develop in various stages. Teachers are required to pass a test to determine if the have the necessary skills to teach and guide children.

Teachers should be knowledgeable of their motivations for going into this profession. The fantasy of teaching perfect children who sit quietly, obey, and listen to every word uttered in class is an unrealistic expectation. Many of the problems in public schools are not related to lack of financial funding, but a lack of fundamental understanding and application of the basic building blocks that create a positive learning environment for students. The same characteristics that make excellent parents make excellent teachers. The most important difference between the two roles is that becoming a parent is not always a conscious decision made in the best interest of the child, whereas the best interest of the child is the primary and only function of being an effective teacher.

Teachers bring your hearts to Class

1. Sense of Justice

Are you punishing the entire class for the behavior of one child?
Are all children treated fairly?
Do you show favoritism?

2. Wisdom

When students ask questions about the lesson do you refer them to the text book or find another way to explain so that that child can understand it?
Can the students detect when you are having problems outside of the class room?
Do you empower your students or just lecture to them?
Do you understand your strengths and weaknesses and know when to forgive yourself? (you’re only human)

3. Respect

Do you consistently yell at your students?
Do you make negative, denigrating comments about their parents and families?
Do you argue with your students as if you are peers?
Do you use “name calling” as a method of discipline?
Do you purposely aim to embarrass, shame or humiliate your students in front of the class

4 Integrity

Do you negatively judge your students by their language or appearance?
Do you admit to it to your students when you have made a mistake?
Deep in your heart, do you still love teaching?
Do you present yourself as a role-model to your students?

5. Compassion

Do you seek the good in your students?
Do your students trust you?
Do you make an effort to learn the names of all of your students?
Do you notice when your students make efforts to improve their pass grades or behaviors?
Do you make it a point to compliment your students when they do well no matter how small?
Do you notify parents when their children are doing well or only when it’s bad news?

6. Enthusiasm

Do you constantly update your lesson plans to incorporate new information?
Do you smile and laugh during your lectures?
Do you incorporate music, poetry, and art in your lesson plans?
Do you mainly depend on reading and worksheets as your main way of teaching?
Are you enthusiastic and energetic about teaching your subject?

7. Pride

Students, teachers & Administrators feel that it is everyone’s responsibility to keep the school neat and clean.
Are you proud to be a teacher or is it just a job?

8. Knowledge

Do you use a variety of teaching methods and strategies to accommodate student’s variety of learning styles?

– Howard Gardner’s 8 Types of Intelligence
– Left Brain & Right Brain Learners
– Auditory, Visionary and Tactile Learners

Do you incorporate peer teaching, tutoring and learning strategies in your class?
Do you give students group projects that allow them to work together and learn to get along with others to complete a shared goal?

9. Patience

Do you become annoyed when students don’t understand a subject the first time? Do you listen to your student’s concerns?

Cassandra George Sturges Psy. D is a mother of two teenagers, a full-time psychology instructor, advice columnists for Today’s Black Woman Magazine, workshop presenter, and publisher of Authentik Beauty Magazine.

What Is Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder?

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder is a medical condition. It is caused by genetic factors that result in certain neurological differences. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder comes in various forms, and there are five or six different types of ADHD.

In the DSM-IV Diagnostic manual, each of these forms, or “types” of ADHD falls under the diagnostic category of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). The main category is then subdivided into ADHD Inattentive Type, or ADHD Impulsive-Hyperactive Type, or ADHD Combined Type. In the recent past, the terms attention deficit disorder “with” or “without” hyperactivity were also commonly used. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder comes in various forms, and truly, no two ADD or ADHD kids are exactly alike.

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder might affect one, two, or several areas of the brain, resulting in several different “styles” or “profiles” of children (and adults) with ADD ADHD.

These different profiles impact performance in these four areas:

First, problems with Attention.
Second, problems with a lack of Impulse Control.
Third, problems with Over-activity or motor restlessness,
Fourth, a problem which is not yet an “official” problem found in the diagnostic manuals, but ought to be: being easily Bored.

A few other important characteristics of this disorder are:

1) That it is SEEN IN MOST SITUATIONS, not just at school, or just in the home. When the problem is seen only at home, we then would wonder if perhaps the child is depressed, or if the child is just being non-compliant with the parents;

2) That the problems are apparent BEFORE the AGE OF SEVEN (7). Since Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder is thought to be a neurologically based disorder, we would expect that, outside of acquiring its symptoms from a head injury, the individual with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder would have been born with the disorder. Even though the disorder might not become much of a problem until the second or third grade when the school work becomes more demanding, one would expect that at least some of the symptoms were noted before the age of seven.

About one of twenty people, children and adults, have Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. It is a significant problem for these people, and for their families. Learn more about the different types of ADHD
at and visit the ADHD Information Library’s family of web sites.


Douglas Cowan, Psy. D. , is a family therapist who has been working with ADHD children and their families since 1986. He is the clinical director of the ADHD Information Library’s family of seven web sites, including
, helping over 350,000 parents and teachers learn more about ADHD each year. Dr. Cowan also serves on the Medical Advisory Board of VAXA International of Tampa, FL. , is President of the Board of Directors for KAXL 88.3 FM in central California, and is President of Incorporated.

Good at Spotting Liars? Or Are You?

Are you a person good at spotting liars? Do you know the signs to look for? If you answered yes to either of these questions, then you may proceed to GO. For the rest of you (and by you I am including myself as well), lets go back to Pennsylvania Ave. and take it one dice roll at a time.

Liars are a very sly and sleek bunch. In general, they have no particular “look”. You can generally pick them out (maybe not at first) by some of the following traits:

Poor Relationship History
Most liars have a poor track history in the family/friend/relationship arenas. This is mostly due to the fact that they have wronged these people via lies and deceit. It is true when they say that you can judge a person by their company. Most liars either will not have company or will associate with their own kind (other liars).

It takes multiple lies for a family to turn its back on one of its own, so if you are associating with a person like this, run away. Fast. Friends my not be as lenient, but if they have been burned too many times, they will flee the scene as well.

Good Salesman

Let’s face it, most salesmen nowadays are born liars. They would sell ice to an Eskimo and still sleep like a baby at night. Unlike other liars, these individuals DO have a certain look. They always “look nice”. Nice clothing and fancy vehicles are standard with this bunch. You can generally tell them by false smiling, and their lack of really hearing anything you are saying.

Smooth Talkers (Non-Salesman)

I remember being asked my opinion for some TV program one day. While I always have an opinion, I was flustered. Generally, when talking spur of the moment, I am. Smooth talkers never fluster or bumble. Why? They practice. They already KNOW what they are going to say. This is a very true form of lying. The smoother the person, the easier the rehearsed lies come out. Normally you will encounter these individuals in a club/bar venue. Let them be to live in their imaginary world.

Inconsistent People

We all know people who are “flakey”. They are, for the most part, good-hearted loving individuals. However, people who are “inconsistent” try to hide behind those considered flakey. Being inconsistent usually means that you are not capable of remembering your own lies. It may seem that the person is just flighty at first but watch for the overlaps that will arise in dates/times and just blatant condescending information.

While, I don’t have an actual category for the liars I am going to address now, you will recognize them and have probably already classified them on your own. They are who I will refer to as “Honest to God” liars. Normally, if you have to say the word Honest, you are not being so. To have to follow up with God is just a double whammy. You should be able to take what people say for face value. Only when questioned, should someone have to prove being honest. Volunteering that information is a guaranteed conviction.

Overall, if someone has lied to you that you know of, chances are he/she will do so again. Try to be wary of those who are obvious liars and cautious of those you are not sure of.

Spotting lies is easy when you know how, for my best lie busting tips go to How To Spot A Liar – never be lied to again!

How to Detect Fire – The Use of Smoke Detectors and Knowing the Impen

Fire can be destructive. Once it reaches this level, it can take out the lives of people, no matter what kind of race, stature, religion or gender they have. It does not choose their victim and anyone vulnerable can be a victim of its destructive abilities. According to the United States Department of Fire Administration, 3,430 people lost their lives in fire last year; 17,675 people where injured; and 118 firefighters were killed on duty. Imagine, even those people whose job is to save us from fire, are even victims of it. Come to think of it, lives are not the only things at stake. It is actually very stressful because people will loose their homes and various properties that they have established for years. Good thing if you are as rich as Donald Trump you have lots of homes to run to but what if you are just an ordinary person? How long will it take before you can get back on your feet?

Home or residential fires are really common. Most of people who die in this instance are not aware that their house is on fire. It normally occurs when they are asleep. They die not because of burning they die because of being asphyxiated from the carbon monoxide. Since most of the people are unaware that their house is on fire, it is best to install a smoke detector at home. You might think that they cost much but actually they do not. They are good investments to keep you on your feet in cases that the signs of fire is at hand. Even if you are sleeping or doing something important, the alarm will be triggered to let you be aware that an impending fire is about to worsen. Thus, you can take actions to save your home and your lives.

These devices are usually installed in the ceiling of your homes. They can be installed in rooms where it might be prone to fire. This way, you can sleep safely at night and in cases of fire, you will have something to wake you up. Other devices even have a voice prompt to tell you whether it is just a plain smoke or it is already a fire. These devices are getting more intelligent to keep people safe at all times. Is it not the best warning device you can ever have?

If in case, you are awake and your smoke detectors does not seem to respond, you can actually be aware of impending signs of fire. Once you see these things, you need to take action and find the source or immediately call for help. The signs are:

1. Smoke or fumes- Once something is burning, you will always smell it. If not you can actually see them and when it is starting to make black fumes, probably it has gotten a lot of fuel to sustain the flames already.

2. Increase in temperature- When fire is getting worse or is already at its worst, temperature rises. You might feel that it is extremely hot in your place. You can even sense it when the knobs of the door or anything metal in the surroundings burns you when touched.

3. Seeing an actual flame- A fire cannot happen without flames. Just as long as the three elements of fire is present, this will never cease to die and it will keep on burning.

Having specialized in the smoke detectors trade for over 20 years, Brian now works tirelessly to promote affordable fire safety for home and for business.

Impact of Test Anxiety and Self-Efficacy on Test Performance


The title of the article that I am picking apart is the Impact of Test Anxiety and Self-Efficacy on Test Performance. This title is easily identified as an equation title because it identifies a relation that will explored in the article. In addition, the variables described are the key elements in the article. The basic content of the article is spelled out perfectly in the title. The article investigates how anxiety and self-efficacy effect test performance. They find that more focus should be on skill deficits and self-efficacy and not test anxiety. The title is very straightforward and tells me exactly what the article is about. I am clearly interested in this subject as I chose this article to be the centerpiece of this assignment.

Opening Points:

The opening of the article summarizes the goals and content of the article. The researchers come out and say exactly what the article is about. The opening is a synopsis as it gives a few bits of information that help get readers up to speed and information from previous studies on the same topic. The opening has a primary point, which is the synopsis point, and then both a lacuna point and a theoretical point, which are both secondary points. Both are obvious as with the lacuna point there is an obvious hole in the research that the researchers are trying to fill and the theoretical point speaks for itself. The opening most definitely gives a clear sense of the goals and orientations of the authors as the first sentence comes right out and tells you what they are researching.


The article does have an abstract, which is the first paragraph that includes 115 words. The abstract can most definitely be decoded as it provides a purpose, problem, participants, design, analysis, results, and conclusion in sequential sentences. The abstract hits those points one sentence at a time and they are easily identifiable. The abstract explains everything clearly and makes the readers want to continue reading the rest of the article.

Research Goals:

The article’s research goals are clearly stated. They make it clear that the researchers used predictions to develop the goals and questions. “The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of test anxiety and self-efficacy in cognitive interference on test performance. ” This is a quote directly from the article and says exactly what the research goal is. The article is most definitely exploring an area that was misunderstood as it shows through its references to other studies that have proven to be incomplete.

Research Questions:

The article gives three research questions to be studied and analyzed throughout the article. The questions are in the form of a hypothesis and are clearly used as predictions of what the researchers will find. The hypothesis’ are: high test anxiety would be associated with cognitive interference as well as poor test performance, individuals with low self-efficacy would exhibit cognitive interference and poor test performance, and there will be an interaction between text anxiety and self-efficacy. In my own words I would say that the research question is how do self-efficacy and test anxiety effect cognitive interference and test taking abilities. The research question is basic, as it appears to be fueled by curiousity. The researcher plans to answer the question by giving participants the Test Anxiety Scale and then have them solve a series of anagram problems while providing self-efficacy ratings in between each of the tasks. At the end of the anagram test, the researchers had participants complete a Cognitive Interference Questionnaire.

Research Argument:

The research argument for this article is pretty simple and straightforward. The argument does not waste any time and gets right to the point. It is extremely linear, and is certainly a set-up argument as it gives information that leads up to the research question. The argument gives some information on previous studies and grounds the research question in practical experiences.

Literature Review:

There are twenty-four references listed that the researchers used when doing this study. The journal cites studies referenced that are similar to their study. The section is not super extensive, however it does tell you a little more to help you understand where the article is coming from and what their basis is for wanting to perform this study. The review certainly covers studies in my opinion as I have heard of Bandura and Sarason as well as a couple of others that pop up. I do not know if they are necessarily experts, but I do recognize their names and bits of their work. The literature review covers classic research and not current research. All of the references are from before the year 2000. Also, the references certainly can point me in a direction that I can follow up on this study and learn more about these topics.


The sample in this study is 93 undergraduates from a Midwestern university. The mean age of these students was 21.6 years, and 67.7% were female. All possessed between 13-14 years of education. The study uses a convenience sample, as students in the university receive extra credit in their introductory psychology classes for participating. Is this appropriate, sure why not.

Research Design:

The type of research design used in this study is experimental because they manipulate the situations. The study is quantitative and the key variables that the researchers looked for were, test anxiety, self-efficacy, and cognitive interference. The design is pretty straight forward and easy to identify.

Discussions and Conclusions:

The study explains its findings by going through each research question/hypothesis and summarizing what they found. The discussion does not just summarize the main findings, however, but also compares the findings to those in other similar studies. This helps to verify the information and make it a little more concrete. The discussion is very clear as it interprets the main findings. There were not really any perplexing or unexpected results for the discussion to address. The discussion shows that this study compares to many other theories and research results that can help lead to further understanding of the main findings in this study.

Summary and Technical Issues:

This study was extremely interesting to me. It is something that is important and clearly something that can help me when I try to get my students to perform well on tests, even the dreaded government tests that determine the schools funding and how your class compares to every other class at that level. There were not any obvious errors that I picked up on in this study, I think it did a nice job of testing the hypothesis’ and I can not think of anything that I would have really done differently. The study is certainly generalizable as it can be completed anywhere with any group. It was conducted in the Midwest, but could easily be done in the south, east coast, west coast, ect. The idea of how realistic this study is may be the only potential problem that I have with this study. How anxious could the subjects be about a test that does not matter and is anonymous. They are receiving their extra credit whether they perform well or not, so I feel as though the anxiety measurements are not realistic.

This project has made me feel so much more comfortable with reading journal articles. Before this class I would have never picked up a journal and read the articles that look appealing. Now I am not overwhelmed by the idea of them and can probably learn a lot about teaching by looking into some more. I definitely came out of this project with a newfound respect for journal articles and an interest in continuing to read and understand them.

Solution Focus Process: Solution Talk vs. Problem Talk Pt I

Solution Talk vs. Problem Talk

Problem talk, of course, is talk about the problem. Solution Focus direct communications to talk about solutions. It does not try to overcome resistance to change, but rather, find where the change is already occurring in the system and accentuating it.

In Solution Focus, we listen to the details communicated about the problem. This is important because it gives us pertinent glimpses into the helpee’s world and their perception of what is happening in their world. But regardless of how they perceive their circumstance, there are positive aspects of their lives that continue to exist. There are areas that are working and it is these areas where they are refocused to and encouraged to build upon. Solution Focus concentrates on the positive aspect to help them create changes. Remember, each individual is the expert of their own life. Helpers always retain a “not knowing” stance. Individuals and families have the ability to generate change and have made changes in the past. Solution Focus interaction seeks to uncover these past successes and solutions. The helper’s task is to get information about the perceived problem, about “what went well” and how it happened.

It helps others identify their own strengths and resources and utilize them toward achieving their relevant goals. This non-blaming way of thinking shifts the focus away from what is wrong in people to what is strong in people and their competence rather than their deficits. There is less focus on “problems” and more focus on empowerment, strengths and exceptions to those problems in order to promote solutions. Rather than dwelling on the past and engaging in lengthy “problem talk” about mistakes, weaknesses and causes, the focus is on what worked before and what clients want, what their goals are and which solutions can help them achieve those goals.

Questioning Interaction

“Exceptions” are those occasions in the helpee’s life when the problem could have occurred but did not. For example: a mother and daughter complain of getting into arguments almost every day. The helper asks for a description of those times when they are not arguing and seem to be getting along well with each other: “When you are not arguing how are things different?” Or, “when you are not arguing what is occurring instead? How do you think that can be made to occur more often?” Those times when Mother and daughter are not arguing are “successes. ” We help helpees’ transfer this ability from one situation to another. This is powerful! Many people are so blinded by what they perceive as problems that they cannot appreciate those times (and there are usually many) when the problem is not happening. In the example above, the keyword is “almost. ” They do not argue “every” day. Nothing occurs all the time. Solution Focus deals with those times when the problematic situation is not happening.

Miracle Questions. Miracle questions make inquiry into the helpees’ frame of reference regarding their perception of what a miracle would mean to them in their life situation. It provides the helper with insight and forces the helpee to focus on the positive. In the above example, miracle questions would ask: “if a miracle occurred tonight and when you woke up the problem was solved, what would you notice first to tell you something was different? When have you noticed small indications of that difference already happening? Who would have to do what to make that happen? When will you know the problem is solved?” Helping using miracle questions is a wonderful approach because it creates a vivid image of what life will be like when the problem is solved. It also creates hope that life can be different from what it is now. You can be as creative as desire in using this approach. Some people use, magic wand, crystal ball, three wishes and so forth. The main idea is to focus the helpee on imagining what their life looks like without the problem and what small signs already exist toward making that life a reality.

(continued in Pt 2)

Rev. Saundra L. Washington, D. D. , is an ordained clergywoman, social worker, and Founder of AMEN Ministries. She is also the author of two coffee table books: Room Beneath the Snow: Poems that Preach and Negative Disturbances: Homilies that Teach. Her new book, Out of Deep Waters: A Grief Healing Workbook, will be available soon.

Good Engineering colleges in Pune, Bangalore, Hyderabad

The engineering studies have always been favorite to students studying in K-12 science. In India, around million science students appear in IIT-JEE and AIEEE to get admission to better colleges in Engineering. Based on their score they are allotted merit numbers. To get better merit numbers they study a lot. To get proper advantage of Higher Merit number it is equally important to choose a better college for further study. Bad selection of college not only puts ones career in jeopardy but also results in waste of time and energy put up to get such better merit number in AIEEE and IIT-JEE. To help them out I am coming out with a list of good engineering colleges in almost entire India.
First Let us discuss Engineering Colleges of Bangalore. Bangalore, first and foremost as choice of study for engineering courses in India, is host to largest number of Engineering colleges in India. Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore, (IISc Bangalore) is one of the premier engineering institutes in India. Apart from IISc, there are more than ninety engineering colleges in and around Bangalore. Here I have given list of some good colleges amongst all of them.
Good Engineering colleges in Bangalore:-

  • Acharya Institute of Technology, Bangalore
  • Bangalore College of Engineering and Technology, Bangalore
  • BMS college of Engineering, Bangalore
  • Cambridge Institute of Technology, Bangalore
  • Don Bosco Institute of Technology, Bangalore
  • East Point College of Engineering and Technology, Bangalore
  • East West Institute of Technology, Bangalore
  • Government SKSJT Evening College, Bangalore
  • Govt. Engineering college Ramnagar, Bangalore,
  • M S Engineering College, Bangalore,
  • M S Ramaiah Institute of Technology, Bangalore,
  • MVJ college of Engineering, Bangalore
  • Nitte Meenakshi Institute of Technology, Bangalore
  • Oxford College of Engineering, Bangalore
  • PES Institute of Technology, Bangalore
  • R V College of Engineering, Bangalore
  • Raja Rajeswari College of Engineering, Bangalore
  • Sapthagiri College of engineering Bangalore,
  • Shirdi Sai Engineering College, Bangalore,
  • Sir M Visvesvaraya Institute of Technology, Bangalore,

Pune is another destination of India, also known as “Oxford of East” is having more than fifty engineering colleges in and around city. Government College of Engineering, Pune (COEP) is amongst oldest Engineering colleges of India. Apart from COEP there are some very good Engineering colleges in the city which I have listed below.

Good Engineering colleges in Pune:-

  • College of Engineering, Pune
  • Maharashtra Institute of Technology, Pune
  • Vishwakarma Institute of Technology, Pune
  • Pune Institute of Computer Technology, Pune
  • Sinhgad College of Engineering, Pune
  • MIT college of Engineering, Pune
  • Vishwakarma Institute of Information Technology, Pune
  • Rajarshi Shahu College of Engineering, Pune
  • Dr. D. Y. Patil College of Engineering Akurdi, Pune
  • Cusrow Wadia Institute of Technology Pune
  • Cummins College of Engineering for Women Pune
  • PES Modern College of Engineering Pune
  • Pune Vidyarthi Griha’s College of Engineering & Technology, Pune
  • Sinhgad Academy of Engineering, Pune
  • Smt. Kashibai Navale College of Engineering, Pune

Hyderabad is capital of Andhra Pradesh State of India and good place to study due to shear presence of Engineering companies in and around city.

Good Engineering colleges in Hyderabad:-

  • JNTU College of Engineering, Hyderabad
  • Chaitanya Bharathi Institute Of Technology,
  • International Institute of Information Technology (IIIT-H), Hyderabad
  • Vasavi College of Engineering, Hyderabad
  • Gokaraju Rangaraju Institute of Engineering and Technology, Hyderabad
  • Osmania University (O U), University College of Engineering, Hyderabad
  • Muffakham Jah College Of Engineering And Technology, Hyderabad
  • Vardhaman College of Engineering, Hyderabad
  • Jaya Prakash Narayan College of Engineering, Hyderabad
  • Mvs Engineering College, Hyderabad
  • Guru Nanak Engineering College – GNEC, Hyderabad
  • Bankatlal Badruka College for Information Technology, Hyderabad
  • ICFAI Institute of Science and Technology Hyderabad, Hyderabad
  • Mahatma Gandhi Institute of Technology Hyderabad,
  • Maheshwara College of Engineering and Technology, Hyderabad
  • Institute of Aeronautical Engineering – IARE, Hyderabad
  • Indian Institute of Technology, Hyderabad (IIT-H) Hyderabad,
  • St. Marys College of Engineering and Technology

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